Frequently Asked Questions2021-02-13T17:47:57+00:00
What is Lubricity?2021-02-02T21:54:54+00:00

Everybody knows what a lubricant is, and we use lubricants to reduce friction in order to prevent
chaffing, scuffing and wear between two surfaces that are moving in relationship to one another.

Lubricity is the term used to rate the effectiveness of a lubricant, and a system of measuring this was
devised by applying a controlled amount of friction between two surfaces, using the lubricant under
test to protect these surfaces, and then measuring the amount of wear that occurs to rate that
lubricant’s performance.

Understanding the results of a lubricity test2021-02-02T21:55:04+00:00

The function of a lubricant is to prevent, or at least reduce, wear between two surfaces. The lubricity
test result is a reading of how much wear occurred during the test, or simply put “how much wear
the lubricant failed to prevent”.

It follows then that a lower score indicating less wear is more desirable than a higher score
indicating more wear.

Why is it important?2021-02-02T21:58:24+00:00

Lubricants prevent or at least reduce wear, which in some instances can be extremely costly to
repair. Thus, the better a lubricant and the lower it is lubricity score, the more wear will be
prevented, and the greater the value of the costs of repair, that are reduced and thus saved.

Why the renewed and increasing interest in lubricity in fuels?2021-02-02T21:58:17+00:00

Historically, or at least into the 70’s, fuels such as diesel were considered to have adequate inherent
lubricity for their use in engines without any additional lubricity improver’s.

This all began to change when Sulphur Oxides in exhaust gases were targeted for reduction as part
of the campaign to reduce harmful emissions, which rolled out globally and to this day, continue to
increase in severity. This is achieved primarily by reducing the sulphur content in the fuel itself and is
carried out at the refinery level.

The processes used to reduce the sulphur content in the fuel, further reduced the lubricity, due to
their effect on the properties of other constituents of the fuel. This essentially amplified the
worsening of lubricity caused by reducing the sulphur content.

What can be, and is being done, to improve the fuel lubricity?2021-02-02T21:58:08+00:00

Additives have become necessary in order to improve the lubricity of fuel, which has been subjected
to the processes of lowering the sulphur content.

This is done both by refineries themselves, and through the use of commercial, after market,
specialist additive suppliers.

Due to the superior lubricity inherent in a host of vegetable oils, these began to be introduced into
fuels distributed for use in diesel engines, in order to restore the lubricity levels.

This process continues to repeat, as fuels progress along the path of diesel from low sulphur diesel,
to very low sulphur diesel, to ultra-low sulphur diesel, and the percentages of vegetable oils is
increased each time.

This process is not without its issues, and new problems are found with each change.
The bottom line is that improving the lubricity of any level of fuel is going to improve the fuel,
reduce wear, and save money.

Improved lubricity also saves fuel.

It is estimated that as much as 30% of the energy in fuel is lost in overcoming friction in vehicles, with over 10% being friction in the engine itself.2021-02-02T21:57:57+00:00

It thus stands to reason that regardless of the grade of fuel used, significant improvements in the
lubricity of a fuel will reduce the friction in the engine and lead to significant improvements in fuel
consumption as well.

What are they?2021-02-06T18:51:58+00:00
Types of hydrocarbon fuels – fossil & synthetic2021-02-06T18:49:32+00:00
Where do they come from?2021-02-06T18:51:50+00:00
Combustion Engines2021-02-06T18:50:51+00:00
Burners2021-02-06T18:51:05+00:00
Why is their use usually very pollutive?2021-02-06T18:51:29+00:00
How are they caused?2021-02-06T18:52:22+00:00
What are they and how do they form – PM, NOx SOx?2021-02-06T18:52:51+00:00
What damage do they do – humans & environmental?2021-02-06T18:53:12+00:00
What is a fuel emulsion?2021-02-06T18:53:29+00:00
The history of emulation technology2021-02-06T18:53:45+00:00
Why are they more efficient and less pollutive than standard fuels?2021-02-06T18:54:09+00:00
What is a fuel conditioner?2021-02-06T18:54:35+00:00
What should its many functions be?2021-02-06T18:54:55+00:00
Why are they used?2021-02-06T18:55:16+00:00
When was it’s technologies first invented?2021-02-06T18:55:45+00:00
Emulsion & its advantages2021-02-06T18:56:01+00:00
Conditioner & its advantages2021-02-06T18:56:19+00:00
Why is SulNOx technology so advanced?2021-02-06T18:56:37+00:00
Hydrocarbon fuels – How long will they be used for?2021-02-06T18:57:18+00:00
What is IMO 2020?2021-02-06T18:59:54+00:00

On 1 January 2020, a new limit on the sulphur content in the fuel oil used on board ships came into force, marking a significant milestone to improve air quality, preserve the environment and protect human health.

Known as “IMO 2020”, the rule limits the sulphur in the fuel oil used on board ships operating outside designated emission control areas to 0.50% m/m (mass by mass) – a significant reduction from the previous limit of 3.5%. Within specific designated emission control areas the limits were already stricter (0.10%). This new limit was made compulsory following an amendment to Annex VI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL).

The resulting reduction in sulphur oxide (SOx) emissions from ships is having major health and environmental benefits for the world, particularly for populations living close to ports and coasts. Sulphur oxides are harmful to human health, causing respiratory, cardiovascular and lung disease. Once released in the atmosphere, SOx  can lead to acid rain, which impacts crops, forests and aquatic species and contributes to the acidification of the oceans.

Before the entry into force of the new limit, most ships were using heavy fuel oil. Derived as a residue from crude oil distillation, heavy fuel oil had a much higher sulphur content which, following combustion in the engine, ended up in ships’ emissions. Now, the vast majority of ships are using very low sulphur fuel oil (VLSFO) to comply with the new limit, and no safety issues have to date been reported to IMO.

Who does this regulation apply to?2021-02-06T19:00:18+00:00
What are the challenges for the shipping industry?2021-02-06T19:00:39+00:00
How are the they currently addressing this?2021-02-06T19:00:56+00:00
Why is there still a problem?2021-02-06T19:01:12+00:00
What is COP26?2021-02-06T19:01:49+00:00
What is ‘Net Zero’ and GHG?2021-02-06T19:02:06+00:00
What does COP26 mean?2021-02-07T21:41:05+00:00

COP26 is the annual UN climate conference. A ‘COP’ means ‘conference of parties’.

Governments and negotiators from across the world will travel to the meeting to discuss how to keep temperature rises below dangerous levels and prevent the climate crisis from causing even worse catastrophes for the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people.

The COP is a summit of all the countries which are part of the UN’s climate change treaty, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change or ‘UNFCCC’. There are 197 members of this process and they are known as ‘parties’ to the treaty.

Where and when is COP26 being held?2021-02-07T21:41:14+00:00

The COP26 location is the Scottish Event Campus (SEC) in Glasgow, Scotland. The conference has been rearranged to take place between 1-12 November 2021 following the coronavirus pandemic.

The UK, as the host country, will hold the COP presidency.

A number of events are scheduled to be held ahead of the COP, including in Italy, which is co-hosting the summit with the UK.

The Glasgow COP climate talks will be the 26th of these conferences.

Why is COP26 important?2021-02-07T21:42:36+00:00

COP26 is critical because it is the first COP since the coronavirus pandemic began.

Governments are now planning how to rebuild from the pandemic and it is vital that these plans are based around the need for a global green and just transition.

Pope Francis has warned that it would be “a scandal” if the money governments are spending to rebuild economies and save businesses “were to focus on rescuing those industries that do not contribute to the inclusion of the excluded, the promotion of the least, the common good or the care of creation”.

Governments are also obliged to set out more ambitious goals for ending their contribution to climate change under the Paris Agreement. A number of countries have begun to do so, including the UK.

Countries agreed to do this at COP21, the climate conference which took place in 2015 in Paris. Governments’ climate commitments are known as ‘nationally-determined contributions’ or ‘NDCs’ and are pledges made by countries themselves on the size of the cuts in emissions they will make themselves.

Countries pledged at the Paris climate talks to work to keep temperature rises below 1.5C. If the world warms more than this threshold, millions more people in the most vulnerable communities around the globe will suffer from devastating droughts, storms, floods and other impacts of climate change.

The UK will host the COP in 2021. It will take over from Chile which was the official host of COP25, even though the conference itself was held in Madrid in Spain. The UK government has the opportunity to lead the way in pushing for other countries to set more ambitious climate goals.

Is COP26 cancelled due to coronavirus/COVID-19?2021-02-07T21:43:16+00:00

It was announced on 1 April 2020 that COP26 will be postponed due to the coronavirus pandemic. COP26 will now take place between 1-12 November 2021.

Neil Thorns, Director of Advocacy at CAFOD, said:

“We have to urgently get back on track with tackling the climate emergency now that we know when COP26 will be taking place.

“As we prepare to rebuild from the coronavirus crisis, the government must press reset on our economy to put people’s welfare, the planet and nature at its heart.

“The UK has the knowledge, expertise and ability to achieve this and in doing so could genuinely lead a COP26 fit for our time.”

Who is COP26 president?2021-02-07T21:43:40+00:00

The COP presidency rotates between different regions. In 2021, the UK and Italy will jointly host the climate conference and the UK’s Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, Alok Sharma, will be the COP26 President.

Mr Sharma was previously the International Development Secretary and takes over from Claire O’Neill who was Climate Minister under Prime Minister Theresa May and led the government’s work towards setting a net zero target in law.

What will happen at COP26 climate talks?2021-02-07T21:44:11+00:00

COP26 will be the largest gathering of world leaders ever to take place on British soil. Many thousands of other people will also gather for the COP, both inside and outside the conference centre.

Inside the conference, delegates such as politicians, diplomats and campaigners will hold formal and informal discussions. Businesses and civil society organisations such as charities will also contribute as observers to the COP process and with meetings called ‘side-events’ which will take place around the COP premises.

Discussions at COP26 are likely to focus on whether the commitments made by countries to cut emissions will be enough to halt dangerous temperature rises and get the world on track to reaching ‘net zero’ as soon as possible. The UK government set a 2050 net zero target after calls from campaigners up and down the country, including thousands of CAFOD supporters.

Negotiators will also discuss plans to provide climate finance support to countries worst hit by the climate crisis and how to help countries adapt to climate change impacts.

Outside the conference, thousands of campaigners will put pressure on COP delegates to show the ambition needed to urgently cut greenhouse gas emissions. Various events are planned, including large marches and demonstrations. More than 500,000 people were estimated to have joined a march in Madrid during COP25.

Why & how are they caused?2021-02-13T18:53:00+00:00
What are the main pollutants – PM, COx, NOx, SOx?2021-02-13T18:52:50+00:00
PM (Particulate Matter) – What is it and how does it form?2021-02-13T18:52:30+00:00
PM2.5 – The most dangerous PM2021-02-13T18:53:46+00:00
COx – What are they, how do they form, what are their dangers?2021-02-13T18:54:15+00:00
NOx – What are they, how do they form, what are their dangers?2021-02-13T18:54:51+00:00
SOx – What are they, how do they form, what are their dangers?2021-02-13T18:55:22+00:00
What is it?2021-02-13T19:41:10+00:00
What does it regulate?2021-02-14T16:41:59+00:00

EN 590 describes the physical, chemical and performance properties that all automotive diesel fuels must meet if they are to be sold in the UK, European Union, Croatia, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland

It is also a ‘Standard’ that is valued and recognised around the world.

Why was it introduced?2021-02-14T16:18:06+00:00

EN590 was introduced to coincide with the development of new emissions standards across the European Union & the UK. The overall goal has been to reduce the sulphur content of diesel fuel (a major element of pollution. eg. acid rain). However, Sulphur has been used as a lubricant in most fuels and its role has to be replicated by another chemical if the Sulphur content is to be significantly reduced. RemNOx Fuel Conditioners provide that lubricity.

EN590’s fundamental importance to the use of Conditioners2021-02-16T12:28:45+00:00

A user of fuel must utilise an accepted standard of fuel if they are to avoid engine damage or excessive wear. And importantly, not invalidate their engine manufacturer’s warranty.

Consequently, without a certified ‘Letter of No Objection’ from any engine’s particular manufacturer (basically giving permission to use a non-standard fuel), they cannot use a fuel which does not conform to an accepted Standard or a fuel whose formula has been altered or contaminated. The addition of chemical formulas to any fuel (like adding Fuel Conditioner) could then classify that fuel as non-standard or contaminated.

However, if the lubricity and combustion performance of a fuel with added Conditioner remains within the strict parameters of EN590, then it is considered a Standard Fuel and cannot legally breach the terms and conditions of a manufacturer’s engine warranty. This negates the need for obtaining ‘Letters of No Objection’ which are almost impossible to obtain.

The importance of a Bureau Veritas certificate2021-02-14T16:20:26+00:00

Evidence that any fuel or treated fuel conforms to EN590 must be provided by a qualified and legally certified testing laboratory. Bureau Veritas, who have certified SulNOx conditioner, are accepted and acknowledged in 197 counties.

How does compliance with EN590 support the use of SulNOx technologies?2021-02-14T16:21:28+00:00

Even through the efficacy, safety, anti-pollutant and economic benefits of using SulNOx fuel products in fuel has been proven for many years, the difficulties of huge costs and the time required to elicit ‘Letters of No Objection’ from each and every engine manufacturer, has proven to be a serious hurdle. The Bureau Veritas certification as solved that deployment problem.

How does it support RemNOx’s deployment?2021-02-14T16:22:14+00:00

Because the use of RemNOx Fuel Condition is fully covered under the SulNOx Bureau Veritas certification, RemNOx can market its products without inherence and its use is fully insured.

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